Contrast enhanced sonographic study of the spleen

Annabelle Hopkins, Demosthenes D. Cokkinos, Eleni G. Antypa, Ploutarchos N. Piperopoulos

Abstract


The spleen shows a variety of pathological entities. Ultrasound (US) is the first imaging modality performed for its assessment. When it is not conclusive, the addition of intravenous contrast agents improves performance and aids in narrowing the differential diagnosis. Benign entities include cysts, accessory spleen, infarcts, abscess, benign masses and trauma. In most of these cases Contrast Enhanced US (CEUS) can reach a diagnosis. Malignant entities include lymphoma and metastases, where CEUS is also useful with some limitations. The technique is performed easily, fast, with no radiation, even in patients with renal insufficiency. This article reviews CEUS technique, normal and abnormal findings in the spleen, indications and limitations.


Keywords


spleen; ultrasound; contrast agent; CEUS

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