Ultrasonography in developmental dysplasia of the hip: a review of current clinical strategies and recommendations for revision of practice

Konstantinos Chlapoutakis, Stylianos Kolovos, Carolina Casini

Abstract


Developmental dysplasia of the hip is a broad term covering a wide spectrum of hip joint disorders, ranging from maturation deficits to severe dysplasia or dislocation. Published prevalence of the disorder ranges from 0.25% to 2.5% or even more in certain geographic areas. Risk factors do exist and include female gender, white race, positive family history and mechanical restriction during or after birth. Low sensitivity and specificity of clinical examination promoted the development of several sonographic techniques for early diagnosis. Among the above-mentioned techniques, Graf’s technique, supported by extended literature and epidemiological data, offers an anatomically based description of pathology and effective monitoring of treatment. Universal sonographic screening early in life is strongly recommended and initiation of treatment as early as possible is mandatory for an optimal outcome.


Keywords


congenital; dislocation; hip joint/dysplasia; ultrasonography/diagnosis; infant

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References


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