Diagnosis and Treatment of Vascular Malformations

Maria Politi, Letterio Barbera, Christian Roth, Panagiotis Papanagiotou

Abstract


Vascular malformations are complex lesions of the vasculature and may be congenital or acquired. The clinical signs of congenital malformations may be subtle in neonates, infants and young children and they usually become apparent during later childhood and adolescence. Acquired vascular malformations consist of arteriovenous fistulas and can be the result of trauma, including iatrogenic one.  Vascular malformations include capillary, lymphatic, venous, arterial and combined malformations. Because of their great variability in type, site, extension and secondary effects, congenital vascular malformations are difficult to understand and this can lead to diagnostic confusion and uncertainty. Treatment strategies include endovascular therapy, surgery, laser and medication depending on the symptoms, location and functional status of the lesion. The aim of therapy is to reduce severe symptoms or complications of the lesion. In this review we use a systematic approach for the vascular malformations, based on the clinical aspects, haemodynamic characteristics and morphology of the lesions with emphasis on the endovascular treatment options.


Keywords


vascular malformations; sclerotherapy; arteriovenous malformations; embolisation

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References


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